Areas of Deprivation
Deprivation is more than just poverty. Poverty is not having enough money to get by, where as deprivation refers to a general lack of resources and opportunities.
Deprivation is measured by calculating the relative deprivation across a range of economic, social and housing issues (know as domains) and can be combined to give an overall 'score'. This is then used to create the Index of Multiple Deprivation.
The Index of Multiple Deprivation is produced by the Department for Communities and Local Government (CLG). The last one was produced in 2010.
It looks at relative deprivation in small areas across the country (known as SOAs – see definition below), and can also be used to compare relative deprivation across local authorities. These indicators can be used to
- analyse patterns of deprivation
- identify areas that would benefit from special initiatives or programmes
- determine eligibility for specific funding streams
Note: not all deprived people live in deprived areas and conversely, not everyone living in a deprived area will be deprived.
- 40% of Birmingham’s population live in areas described as in the most deprived 10% in England.
- 23% of the population live in areas in the most deprived 5%.
- Birmingham is ranked the third most deprived Core City (behind Liverpool and Manchester).
- Birmingham is ranked the most deprived city on both income and employment deprivation, largely influenced by the size of the authority compared to other major cities.
- Birmingham was also ranked as the most deprived authority in the Country on both these scales in 2004 and 2007.
- Deprivation in Birmingham is concentrated in a ring around the city centre
- Over half (61%) the SOAs in Birmingham are ranked in the most deprived 25% in England on the overall Index.
- Two fifths of Birmingham SOAs are ranked in the most deprived 10% in England
- 12 of Birmingham’s SOAs are in the most deprived 1% in the country, in Soho, Sparkbrook, Washwood Heath, Nechells, Bordesley Green, Stechford and Yardley North, Kings Norton and Brandwood.
- 2 SOAs are in the least deprived 5% in the country, one in Sutton Four Oaks and one in Sutton Trinity
What are the Domains?
A score is calculated for each of the following topics using a number of nationally available measures of economic, social and housing issues which can be considered as indications of hardship:
- Income Deprivation
- Employment Deprivation
- Health Deprivation and Disability
- Education, Skills and Training Deprivation
- Barriers to Housing and Services
- Crime Deprivation
- Living Environment Deprivation
There are also 2 supplementary indicators that look at the affect of income deprivation on specific vulnerable groups: Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index (IDACI) and Income Deprivation Affecting Older People Index (IDAOPI).
Details of the variables used in the calculations can be found in the attachment below.
The small areas used for the IMD are called super output areas (SOAs). There are a total of 32482 SOAs in England, each with a population of between 1,000 and 3,200. When created from Census output areas, SOAs fell wholly within wards but following the 2004 boundary changes this is no longer the case in Birmingham. They are small enough to identify problems within wards but large enough to avoid the dangers of breaching confidentiality.
Each SOA gets a score for each domain calculated using the range of selected variables. These individual scores are combined, using various methods of standardisation and weighting, to produce the overall index. Scores are ranked from 1 to 32482 where 1 represents the most deprived SOA in England and 32482 the least deprived..
Further information about the Index of Multiple Deprivation, can be found on Communities and Local Government web site, where you will also find regional analysis in the Technical Report and a Summary Report as well as the option to download the data for whole of England.
The following attachments contain further information on the overall index, the individual domains and details about the variables used in the calculation of the scores.